THE CONCEPT OF “RESILIENCE”: HISTORY OF FORMATION AND APPROACHES TO DEFINITION
Keywords:resilience, resiliency, resilience as a personality trait, resilience as a skill
The aim of the article is to collect information about the history of the integration of the concept of "resilience" into psychological science and determine the main approaches to its understanding; to systematize and compare the approaches to the conceptualization of the concept of "resilience" and its distinction with other terms presented in the Ukrainian and foreign scientific literature in recent years. The article gives a historical review of the formation and development of the concept of "resilience", starting from the 19th century and ending with the present. The authors consider different views on the psychological interpretation of the term "resilience", as an aspect that has an impact on the quality of life of an individual. There are two main approaches in psychology to understanding resilience – resilience as a trait and a process which have a common understanding of the concept: it describes the ability of individuals and social systems (family, communities, organizations) to successfully function, adapt, and cope despite different kinds of adversity (psychological, social, cultural, physical). Resilience emerges in people along the continuum of their development. The focus is on the conceptualization of resilience as a continuous, active process of the emergence or development of new forces and resources for adaptation and recovery, which has uneven dynamics in the face of the emergence of new risks. In such interpretation resilience is the ability of a person or social group to maintain balance and integrity in a difficult situation, to effectively solve not only the task of adapting to changing conditions, but also the task of development. The authors compares the approaches to the conceptualization of the concept of "resilience" presented in the Ukrainian and foreign scientific literature in recent years. In both English and Ukrainian sourses, resilience belongs to the category of adaptation, it is preceded by a traumatic event or stressful impact. In the Ukrainian-language psychological literature, the definition of resilience as a dynamic process, prevails; the concept of resilience is interpreted mainly as resistance to stress, maintenance of normal functioning in conditions of psycho-traumatic influence. In English-language literature, the conceptualization of resilience as a return to the previous level of functioning, rapid recovery is significantly predominant.
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