Submission Preparation ChecklistAs part of the submission process, authors are required to check off their submission's compliance with all of the following items, and submissions may be returned to authors that do not adhere to these guidelines.
The title of the manuscript should fully reflect the topic of the research and its content. It must be short and concrete (not more than 15 words). Besides it should catch the reader’s interest and it should be written using the scientific style. It is appropriate to point the object of research or concretize it using the colon or the brackets. It is not recommended to use contractions, but if used, then only for the commonly known ones.
Here the name (first name and last name) of the author (authors) must be written. Those authors who use the patronymic or middle name should write only the first. The authors whose names are written in the Cyrillic alphabet must transliterate them correctly..
After the names of the authors, there should be written their academic degree and academic rank, affiliation (university, academic institution, etc. or the organization to which they belong), city and country. If the name of city or country is already used as author's affiliation still both the city and the country should be indicated. The name of the organization or the institution must be indicated, separated by the comma in the nominative case and this name must be full, without contractions and abbreviations. Authors must also indicate their e-mail addresses and the ORCID link.
If there are several authors, they make a decision themselves concerning the order of their mentioning in the title of the paper (recommended variant – depending on the contribution to the research). The list of authors includes only those persons who have really taken part in the research and agreed to bear full responsibility for its content. Research funding or taking part in paying the article processing charge is not a prerequisite for being included in the list of co-authors. While forming the list of the authors, a special attention should be paid to the COPE (Committee on Publication Ethics) principles.
In order to bring the academic degrees, academic ranks and occupations, which are used in some emerging economies or the developing countries, in line with the international standards, the corresponding table should be used ENGLISH EQUIVALENTS FOR ACADEMIC RANKS, DEGREES AND JOB TITLES.
It should be written using the following algorithm: first two or three sentences indicate the relevance of the topic; the aim and object of the study; the methodology (methods) of the study (for theoretical studies – its theoretical basis) are described; the obtained results and their practical value are characterized. At the same time, every statement must follow logically from the previous one. In the abstract for a research paper, it is recommended to use the numerical results. In the abstract of a review paper, the author can only point the issues discussed, without presenting the results. While writing the abstract, it is necessary to use the active voice instead of the passive voice, and such words as “thus”, “for instance”, “as a result”, etc. In the abstract, the author should not refer to any researches or other sources of information. The abstract should be written without subsections and without subtitles, i.e., is not structured. The text should be concise and original. It is not appropriate to use the sentences in the Abstract from the text of the paper. At the same time, the material which is absent in the paper cannot be presented in the Abstract. In the Abstract, the author should not refer to any sources, use tables and figures. The size of the abstract is 1800-2500 characters with spaces.
The purpose of keywords is to provide the insight to the reader into the contents of the paper. They should reflect the area of the research. The number of keywords should be 5-10 in average. There should not be the sentences, but the words or word groups. If the object of the study is not mentioned in the title of the paper (including the country, the region), it should be added to the list of keywords. There is no need to replicate words from the title of the manuscript.
If earlier the author was not aware of this classification system, he/she should attentively look through it in order to have a common understanding of all the areas defined in it . The codes, indicated by the author should clearly reflect the research area. The author is welcome to use the codes from two or three areas, if they are covered in the research.
- Formulas: ___; fig.: ___; tabl. ___; bibl.: ___
Both scientific issues and the relevance of the research should be substantiated and explained in the introduction. Also a problem statement should be pointed out. The introduction should not be long, the author should avoid using tables and figures.
Literature review provides an analysis and generalization of relevant works (papers, monographs, reports, theses, etc.), which describe the essence of the problem and/or give an understanding on the previous efforts to solve it. The Literature Review should comply with the aim of the research (“fitness for purpose”) and represent the results of critical analysis of the analytical base for testing the research hypothesis.
Literature review must not be limited only by works, which were published in the country where the author lives and works (the problem should be studied globally). Particularly it concerns the authors from non-English speaking countries (they are recommended to thoroughly analyze the works published in English).
If appropriate, normative legal acts are also analyzed.
Only those sources are given and analyzed in the paper, which really are valuable for the author’s research. The author cannot just make long lists of authors and their works, which are related to the investigated issues. The author cannot take the pieces of review text from other works with reference to other authors and include their works in the list of references. When citing, the author is obliged to observe ethical and moral principles.
While making literature review, the author can use own publications and refer to them, but only in order to describe the problem, but not to increase the citation level.
It is recommended to finish the literature review with the presentation of unsolved issues, identification of contradictions in the results and findings of the previous researches, justification of the need to continue the studies in this area and choice of the specific topic (direction) of this study.
In the literature review and throughout the text of the paper as a whole, refer to APA formatting and style guide.
The aim describes main results in a short and concrete manner (in one sentence), the achievement of which is the purpose of the research. Here can also be mentioned several intermediate problems, the solution of which will ensure that the aim is achieved. The aim should not replicate the title of the manuscript.
The methods (methodology) of the study are indicated in this section (commonly known), which author uses in the research, and/or the methodology offered by the author himself is described in a short and concrete manner. If methods and procedures offered are used in other works, the author should refer to the original sources.
In this subsection of the theoretical paper the theoretical basis of the research should be described, theories, perspectives, formulae, equations should be presented.
If commonly known statistic procedures are used in the paper, the author should not describe their essence, it is sufficient just to point them.
Here empirical or theoretical data obtained in the process of the research are given. It is recommended to use figures, tables, graphs, schemes. The interpretation of the obtained results is not made in this section. Also there should not be presented the results, which were earlier obtained by the authors or other scientists.
Here the interpretation of the results obtained during the research is made. A comparison is made with the results obtained by other researchers.
In this section the main ideas of the manuscript are presented, the obtained results and their novelty are demonstrated. The possibility of practical use of the obtained results should be outlined and the directions for further scientific research should be offered.
In this subsection, the relevant scientific programs, grants, scholarships, contracts are indicated.
The author can also mention the persons or organizations, which helped him in conducting the research (access to information, organization of the survey, interview, etc.) and preparation of the paper (advice at the stage of writing, critical remarks, help in calculations, etc.).
The list of references must be made in the alphabetical order. While indicating the source, which was analyzed in the source language (not in English), it should be indicated first in the source language, then the transliteration should be made in brackets. It is recommended that it should be done with the transliteration for English-speaking systems (it is better to use transliteration of the system British Standards Institution.
Refer to APA formatting and style guide.
The article is copyrighted by the author under CC Attribution 4.0
Detailed information at the Creative Commons site: https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0.
Manuscripts should be reviewed with due respect to the confidentiality of the authors. Submitting their manuscripts to review, the authors trust the editors the results of their scientific work and creative efforts, from which their reputation and career may depend on. The rights of authors may be violated in case of disclosure of confidential information during the review of manuscripts. Reviewers also have the right to privacy, which should be maintained by the editor. Confidentiality may be violated if there is dishonesty or fraud, but in other cases, it should be followed.
The editorial staff should not disclose information about the manuscripts (including their receipt, content, status in the process of review, criticism of reviewers or final fate) to anyone except authors and reviewers. This includes requests for the use of materials for legitimate actions.
Reviewers’ comments cannot be published or made public without the permission of the reviewer, author and editor.
Thoughts differ on whether reviewers should remain anonymous. Authors should get acquainted with the Information for PALR authors to which they have decided to submit the manuscript to find out whether the reviews are anonymous. If the comments are not signed, the reviewers should not be disclosed to the author or anyone else without the permission of the reviewers.